BOOKS ON ARCHITECTURE
The humanist Guillaume Philandrier, who had accompanied the Bishop of Rodez, Georges d’Armagnac, during his diplomatic missions to Venice (1536-1539) and Rome (1540- 1545), published his Annotationes on Vitruvius’ De Architectura in Rome at the print shop of Giovanni Andrea Dossena in 1544. The book resulted from his Italian experience. In Venice, Sebastiano Serlio himself had initiated the humanist, a philologist and scholar, in architecture and he became abreast with the most modern knowledge. The neophyte even proved to be advanced enough as early as that period to propose a personal interpretation of a passage of Vitruvius’ book IV (IV, 6,  = Lemerle 2000, pp. 201-202) which Serlio did not take into account in his Regole generali d’architetura published in 1537. For then Philandrier was reading the antique treatise in conjunction with the Bishop of Rodez, an accomplished man of letters himself (1552, dedication to Cardinal d’Armagnac). It was probably as early as that period that the philologist originated the project of a commentary on the De architectura in the form of brief annotations with corrections as he had already done for Quintilian in 1535 (Castigationes, atque annotationes pauculæ in XII libros institutionum M. Fab. Quintiliani, specimen quoddam futurorum in eosdem commentariorum, Lyon, 1535). He visited the city of the Doges, haunted her workshops where he observed color manufacturing and did not fail to go see the nearby ruins at Verona and Pola, in that way gaining tremendous erudition. After a short stay in Paris, he crossed the mountains again in 1540 and spent the year traveling through Italy before reaching Rome. At the court of Paul III he spent time with Antonio and Giovan Battista da Sangallo, both interested in the theoretical problems caused by reading the De architectura. As in the Republic of Venice, Philandrier was in contact with the intellectual elite, Angelo Colocci and Marcello Cervini (the future pope Marcellus II). He was a member of the Accademia della Virtù founded by Claudio Tolomei, who decided during the winter of 1540-1541 to devote his books to antique architecture and to Vitruvius’ treatise. There Philandrier mixed with remarkable individuals, as well as young Vignola, in charge of measuring Roman antique monuments for the assembly. Philandrier’s publication made Tolomei’s project for a commented edition of Vitruvius obsolete. If Philandrier made very good use of the biweekly sessions at the Roman academy, devoted in large part to reading the De architectura, this activity had not drawn to a close in 1544, and the academy interrupted its work for good after Tolomei left in October, 1545. Nor did the Sienese have time for successful completion of the other component of his ambitious program : the study and publication of Roman antiquities. And yet it was during this same period that young Pirro Ligorio, who was also developing in the Farnese ambiente, devoted a large part of his activity to archeological vestiges. Philandrier quickly became friends with the Neopolitan Ligorio and learned a great deal from his friend (V, 3= Lemerle 2011, p. 72), visiting Rome and its vicinity with him, especially Tivoli.
Frédérique Lemerle Centre national de la recherche scientifique,
P. De La Mare, De vita, moribus, et scriptis Guillelmi Philandri Castilionii, Civis Romani Epistola, (Dijon), 1667.
B. Ebhardt, Vitruvius : die zehn Buecher der Architektur des Virtuv und ihre Herausgeber. Mit einem Verzeichnis der vorhandenen Ausgaben und Erlaüterungen, Berlin, Burgverlag, 1918 (reed. : New York, Salloch, 1962).
F. Lemerle, “Genèse de la théorie des ordres : Philandrier et Serlio”, Revue de l’art, 103, 1994, p. 33-41.
F. Lemerle, “Philandrier et le texte de Vitruve”, Mélanges de l’École française de Rome – Italie et Méditerranée, 106, 1994-2, p. 517-529.
F. Lemerle, Les Annotations de Guillaume Philandrier sur le De Architectura de Vitruve, Livres I à IV, Introduction, translation and commentary, Paris, Picard, 2000.
F. Lemerle, Guillaume Philandrier, Les Annotations sur l’Architecture de Vitruve, Livres V à VII, Introduction, translation et commentary, Paris, Garnier, 2011.
F. Lemerle, “Philandrier et Giocondo”, Giovanni Giocondo umanista, architetto e antiquario, a cura di P. Gros & P. N. Pagliara, Venice, Marsilio, 2015, pp. 185-194.
P. Maruéjouls, Étude biographique sur le cardinal d’Armagnac 1500-1585, unpublished thesis, l’École des Chartes, defended in 1896 (2 vols.), Rodez, Société des lettres, sciences et arts de l’Aveyron.
P. N. Pagliara, “Vitruvio, da testo a canone”, S. Settis (ed.), Memoria dell’antico nell'arte italiana, III, Turin, Einaudi, 1986, pp. 67-74.
G. Poleni, Exercitationes Vitruvianæ primæ..., Padua, G. Manfrè, 1739-1741, pp. 46-49.