BOOKS ON ARCHITECTURE
|| Mollet, André
Le jardin de plaisir...
|| Stockholm, H. Keyser, 1651
|| Paris, Binha, Fol. Res 543
Henrik Keyser, bookseller and printer who owned the most renowned publishing
house in Sweden, printed André Mollet’s treatise in three
simultaneous editions in Stockholm, in French (Le jardin de plaisir),
in a German translation by Gregorius Geijer (Der Lust Gartten)
and in Swedish (Lustgård), whose translator is unknown.
Relatively few copies have been preserved; some, very rare, have the
three versions of the text, from which the buyers could choose which
book to buy. The book is dedicated to Queen Christina of Sweden, who
granted a privilege dated March 12, 1651. Editing and working out the
illustrations took six months according to the foreword, which places
the composition of the whole in 1650.
whose birth date is unknown, but who must have been born around 1600,
came from a dynasty of French gardeners. His grandfather Jacques Mollet
had worked for Charles de Lorraine, duc d’Aumale, at Anet; his
father Claude I Mollet had been summoned to serve Henri IV, becoming
first gardener to the king and having the responsibility for the new
garden of the Tuileries, the allée des Mûriers and the
little garden at the Louvre, as well as Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Montceaux-en-Brie
and Fontainebleau. André pays homage to him in the headword and
publishes his portrait engraved by Michel Lasne. The illustration aims
to assert the professional status acquired by gardeners, in a corporation
since 1600. In it Claude I Mollet is indicating a plan, placed on the
table next to a compass. The small edifice which frames this oval portrait
is flanked at the top by two putti carrying at the left a square
and a compass, at the right a pair of scissors and a line. Thus it is
the architectural dimension of the garden, as a space drawn in its plan
as in its volume, which is pointed up. The two figures in the base,
related to a river-god and a nymph, are nonetheless leaning on fruits
and vegetables and are holding respectively a spade and a rake, recalling
the connections between gardening and agriculture. The terrestrial globe
and the hourglass placed at the foot of the portrait refer to the necessary
knowledge of the terrestrial world, of time which passes and of the
weather. Such iconography suggests that this engraving was initially
conceived to illustrate the work of Claude I Mollet himself, the Théâtre
des plans et jardinages, which, written between 1620 and 1636,
would only be published posthumously in 1652, and in which the popularization
of astrology and meteorology occupies quite a place. Le jardin de
plaisir hardly approaches these areas.
had certainly contributed to the illustrations of the Théâtre
des plans et jardinages with three of his brothers, Claude II,
Jacques and Noël. Towards 1629, he was summoned to England by Queen
Henriette-Marie, the daughter of Henri IV and Marie de Médicis,
then worked starting in 1633 in Holland with the architect Simon de
la Vallée and the superintendent of fountains Joseph Dinant,
for Frederick Henry of Nassau, prince of Orange. In France in 1635,
he returned to England, working for Henriette-Marie at Wimbledon Manor
in 1641-1642, then went back to France because of the English civil
war. It was in 1648 that he went to Sweden on the invitation of Queen
Christina, according to an agreement with her lover Magnus Gabriel de
la Gardie, concluded during his mission to France in 1646. Mollet’s
son Jean accompanied him, and he conveyed rare plants (orange trees,
lemon trees, pomegranate trees, bulbs, etc.) for a total value of two
thousand pounds. As soon as he arrived in Stockholm, André Mollet
worked notably in the royal garden or Kungsträdgården, near
the Saint James church, and renovated the old gardens of the Houblonnière
(Humlegården). The dedication to Queen Christina of Sweden alludes
to his training in France, his career in England and Holland and to
his present functions close to the crown. By publishing Le jardin
de plaisir, Mollet proposed an ideal royal garden project, which
is the subject of the last chapter, but was never to be realized. During
those years, Mollet also worked for Swedish nobles, whether it was for
Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie in Jakobsdal, north of the capital, or for
the governor general Schering Rosenhane on the island of Kungsholmen
in Stockholm, as a garden designer and plant supplier. He left Sweden
at the end of the summer, 1653, a few months before the Queen abdicated.
Starting in 1658 he would work again in England; in 1661 Charles II
named André and his nephew Gabriel (the son of Claude II Mollet)
gardeners for the new plantings in Saint James Park. André Mollet
died in London on June 7, 1665, probably of the plague, whereas his
son Jean pursued his activity in Sweden.
takes its title from an expression already present in Le théâtre
d’agriculture et mesnage des champs (1600) by Olivier de
Serres. Here it referred in particular to royal houses. The notion of
“jardin de plaisir” had essentially been put into theory
by Jacques Boyceau de la Barauderie in his Traité du jardinage
selon les raisons de la nature et de l’art (posthumous publication
in 1638), in which he went beyond the distinction established by his
predecessor among four types of gardens : vegetable, flower, medicinal
and fruit orchards, inappropriate according to him for the “princes,
seigneurs et gentilshommes de moyens”, to prescribe a garden in
two parts, one “pour le plaisir et beauté”, the other
“utile”. This separation wasn’t totally strict, since
Boyceau foresaw some plants “medicinales, ou servans aux salades”
in the parterres of the pleasure garden, and recommended on the other
hand that the useful garden not be “sans embellissemens d’artifices”
including arbors or placing beds or borders in shapes and colors. Nevertheless,
the theoretical separation laid out by Boyceau would result in the notion
of “jardin de plaisance ou de propreté” in La
théorie et la pratique du jardinage (1709) by Antoine-Joseph
Dezallier d’Argenville, in which neither vegetable gardens nor
orchards are treated.
it is necessary to understand clearly that in André Mollet’s
book, published thirteen years after Boyceau’s, this break was
far from complete. In fact, the first ten of the eleven chapters constitute
a “abbregé de l’agriculture” as announced in
the title. In it Mollet condenses very efficiently the knowledge that
traditionally was the subject of rural economic manuals, a category
in which Olivier de Serres’ treatise belongs, and in a large measure,
so does his own father’s. In relation to these two models, encyclopaedic
prolixity gives way to concision, as the foreword makes explicit: “Je
prie le lecteur d’excuser ma brieveté, le renvoyant a plusiezurs
bons autheurs qui ont cy devant amplement traicté de l’agriculture”.
André Mollet also takes care to note certain particular observations
on growing plants in the northern climate. Thus he addresses successively
the soil and its improvements (chapter I), the nursery (II), fruit trees
(III), grafts (IV), grapevines (V), the vegetable garden or “jardin
de cuisine” (VI-VII). The “jardin à fleurs”
(VIII) is subdivided in two parts, one for the shrubs and large herbaceous
plants, the other for low plants. He covers “arbres sauvages”
(IX), distinguished by their deciduous foliage (oak, chestnut, lime-tree…)
or evergreens (fir, holly, boxwood, cypress…), and “orangers
et autres arbres rares” (X), recommending that a summer orangery
be built in the northern climate. The last chapter is devoted to spatial
composition (“Des ornaments du jardin de plaisir”), which
is essentially made up of an explanation of the thirty plates, drawn
by André Mollet himself. This is certified by his foreword and
the presence of his monogram (“AM. I. f.” for André
Mollet Invenit et fecit), for which he collaborated with the engravers
Jan van de Velde (born in Utrecht and died in Haarlem in 1686) and Wolfgang
Hartmann (probably born in Gdansk and died in Stockholm in 1663). Each
plate has a scale in toises (six-foot measurements) as was the case
in Boyceau, but not in de Serres, so that it would be easier “de
reduire sur terre tous nos desseins en leur proportion requise”
(sign. Fr), and is specifically annotated in the text. Mollet considers
the exterior treatment of a “maison royalle” (sign. E4v),
implicitly addressing Queen Christina of Sweden.
of the chapter insists on a good distribution of space in the pleasure
garden: “nous y ordonnerons les parterres, bosquets, arbres,
palissades, et alleës diverses, comme aussi les fontaines, grottes,
statuës, perspectives, et autres tels ornemens, sans lesquels le
dict jardin de plaisir ne peut estre parfait ; neantmoins il est evident
que toutes ces choses confuses, et mal approprieës ne font pas
un trop bel effect, c’est pourquoy nous essayerons a les disposer
chacunes en leur lieu, suivans l’ordre que l’experience
nous a appris, dont les desseins suivans peuvent donner intelligence
» (sign. E4v). This formula clearly expresses a conception,
already present during the second half of the 16th century (for example
in the work of Vasari), which assimilates the work of the “dessinateur
de jardin” into the rhetorical operation of dispositio
of the required “ornaments”, in other words the spatial
arrangement of topical elements which fall within the province of the
inventio. On this second level, Mollet’s treatise shows
itself to be less loquacious and systematical than Boyceau’s,
whose third book (“De la disposition et ordonnance des jardins,
et des choses qui servent à leur embellissement”) listed
many of these ornaments- grottoes, canals or even aviaries – in
as many specific chapters. On the other hand, Mollet appears more specific
when it concerns disposition of space.
In the first
place, in giving advice – as Vincenzo Scamozzi had done before
him in L’idea dell’architettura universale (1615)
and Louis Savot in L’architecture françoise des bastimens
particuliers (1624) – to plant “ une grande advenuë
a double, ou triple rang (…) tiree d’allignement perpendiculaire
a la face du devant de la maison, au commencement de laquelle soit fait
un grand demy cercle, ou quarré ” (sign. E4v),
his text accounts for the principle of axial organization which had
widely asserted itself in French practice during the 16th century.
Mollet supports his discourse with images. Plates 1 and 2 constitute
in fact the first general garden plans published in a treatise. The
first one, the largest (310 by 220 toises, i.e. approximately 604 by
429 meters), has often been compared to the Jardin des Tuileries because
of its modular disposition terminating in a half-moon shape. Recent
research has also shown analogies with Ter Nieuburch at Rijswijk, the
garden of Frederick Henry of Nassau, which was designed on the model
of the Luxembourg and in which Mollet very probably collaborated, at
the beginning of the 1630s, with the gardener Louis D’Anthoni.
Similar dimensions and the same placing of an exterior canal surrounding
the garden on three sides are found there. The second ideal plan, smaller
(200 by 150 toises, i.e. 390 by 293 meters) is very similar to Honselaarsdijk
near The Hague, where Mollet had worked for the stathouder from 1633
to 1635, and from which he took the access avenue terminating in a half-moon,
which had been completed before he worked there. Nevertheless one will
notice that the ideal plan is differentiated from Honselaarsdijk with
the absidial termination of the axis, a very common solution in French
gardens between 1620 and 1640 (from the palaces of the Luxembourg and
Cardinal in Paris to the châteaux of Richelieu, Berny, Fromont
or Balleroy), and which was already visible at the end of the 16th century,
whether at Charleval, at Maulnes or even in the famous “echo”
of the Tuileries. Thus transposing both French and Dutch realities,
these two plans illustrate the axial composition of the garden, linked
to the château in a general conception, and cut up by a regular
grill of “cases” to fill in as one wished, with the help
of models of parterres, thickets and labyrinths which are given later
(level of the inventio). It must be noted that the junction
of the small general plan, in which the allées must be planted
with verdant palisades, separated not by thickets, but different sectors
where “l’on peut planter des arbres fruictiers, ou bien
en faire potager, dont les dittes pallissades hautes pourront empescher
la deformitè: car autrement nous n’approuvons pas que
le jardin de plaisir soit interrompu d’herbages, ny d’arbres
fruictiers, a moins qu’ils ne soient plantez en expailler; mais
bien d’en faire un jardin a part” (sign. F2r).”
This indication echoes Boyceau’s instructions on the separation
between the pleasure garden and the useful garden, which Mollet tends
to recommend here without applying it strictly.
models provided, the boxwood parterres with embroidery – like
scrolls – the type whose development Claude I Mollet develops
in his treatise – are represented first (pl. 3 and 5-18). Thus
model 3, with the square parterre cut in diagonals by four allées,
can be placed at the bottom of the large general plan; plate 4, placed
here symmetrically, gives a variation in a “compartiment de gazon”.
Likewise, model 5, with a format terminating in a half-moon, can be
adapted to go in front of the château in the small general plan.
Mollet points out that plate 6 corresponds to the parterre he executed
at Kungsträdgården, an indication confirmed by a drawing
at the Royal Library in Stockholm. The text alludes to the process of
transferring the design on the ground by using a modular grid.
to 24 show what Mollet calls “compartimens de gazon” ; parterres
composed of different geometric pieces, each one made up of a flower
border surrounding a central space planted with grass, which it “faut
faucher pour le moins toutes les sepmaines” (sign. F3v) and roll
as in England. These pieces are separated from each other by narrow
paths in the middle of which runs a continuous “filet” of
lawn, widening at the places set aside for statues. This category, never
seen before, could be considered a stage towards the “parterres
à l’anglaise”, composed of large stretches of lawn.
Dezallier d’Argenville evokes their success at the beginning of
the 18th century. Among the models provided by Mollet, one must point
out that plate 23 corresponds exactly to the parterre executed by him
at Honselaarsdijk on the western side of the château, information
confirmed moreover in the English edition of the Jardin du plaisir
(1670), such as an engraving by Balthazar Florisz van Berckerode (c.
1638) represents it, except that the lion rampant of the house of Nassau
does not figure in the center. Vanessa Bezemer Sellers (2001) has shown
that the parterre with embroidery-like scrolls planted symmetrically
on the eastern side of Honselaarsdijk had likewise been published in
to 28 illustrate groves, embellished by garden arbors and cabinets.
Plates 29 and 30 finally represent “dedalles, ou labyrinthes”,
for which Mollet recommends planting verdant palisades “a double
rang, afin de les rendre plus fortes, et espaisses” (sign. F4v).
The treatise closes with advice on spreading sand on allées and
after André Mollet’s death an English version of this treatise
was published (The Garden of Pleasure, London, John Martyn,
1670), with a dedication from the author to Charles II and a poem to
André Mollet by a certain Belon. Few copies of it have been preserved.
The text, considerably abridged, is mainly based on chapter XI, greatly
rearranged with omissions and additions, and again is essentially a
commentary on the illustrations. This time there are thirty-six plates.
In fact this edition includes the plan for Saint James Park, developed
by André Mollet and his nephew Gabriel starting in 1661, where
they planted many dwarf fruit trees and flowers imported from Charles
Mollet (another of Claude II’s sons) who was in Paris. In addition,
five new designs of grassy parterres are reproduced.
document on the close international relations which developed in the
area of the art of gardening in Europe between 1625 and 1650, André
Mollet’s book was not reedited until 1981, when Isabelle Billiard,
Éditions du Moniteur (Paris), adapted it in contemporary French
with a postface by Michel Conan. In 2006 the editor Gyllene Snittet
(Uppsala) put out a facsimile reprint of the three 1651 editions- French,
Swedish and German; a second volume, including the 1670 English version
and a series of annotations by Swedish researchers (Anna Jakobson, Göran Lindhal,
Kjell Lundquist and Åke Nisbeth), was published in 2007.
Hervé Brunon (Centre national de la recherche scientifique,
Chastel, Paris) – 2007
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plaisir, Paris, Éditions du Moniteur, 1981, pp. 99-115, republished
« Le Jardin de Plaisir d’André Mollet », M. Conan, Essais de poétique des jardins, Florence,
Olschki, 2004, pp. 135-168.
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S. Karling, "The Importance of André Mollet and His Family
for the Development of the French Formal Garden", E.B. MacDougall & F.H. Hazlehurst (ed.), The
French Formal Garden, Washington, DC, Dumbarton Oaks, 1974, pp. 3-25.
M. Laird, "Parterre, Grove and Flower Garden : European Horticulture
and Planting Design in John Evelyn’s Time", T. O'Malley & J. Wolschke-Bulmahn (ed.), John
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DC, Dumbarton Oaks, 1998, pp. 171-219.
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between Classical Re-creation and a Protestant Work Ethic", Garden
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James’s Park, London", Garden History, 26, 1,
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of Orange and the Hortus Batavus, Amsterdam/Woodbridge, Architectura &
Natura Press/Garden Art Press, 2001, pp. 35-39, 176-178,